Paul wrote Romans in Corinth probably in AD 55-57.
The theme is given in 1:16-17 (the righteousness of God by faith).
Rom 1-4 deals with our sin issues–because of sin, we need justification by faith
- Rom 1 – the gospel is concerns the Son (1-6); the gospel is God’s power to save all who believe (16-17); yet all are sinners (18-32)
- Rom 2 – all are sinners (Jews and Gentiles); an inwardly Jew and the circumcision of the heart (28-29)
- Rom 3 – no one is righteous; so we need the righteousness of God for all who believe in Christ (22)
- Rom 4 – Abraham too was justified by faith
Rom 5-8 Justification by faith has implications for both the present and the future (ESV)
- Rom 5 – we now have peace with God (1); so we can endure in sufferings: suffering > perseverance > character > hope; God’s love; death by one man (Adam) and life/righteousness by one man (Christ)
- Rom 6 – through baptism: dead to sin, alive in Christ; the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord (23)
- Rom 7 – the law is not sinful, we recognize sin through the law; but thanks be to God, who delivers me through Jesus Christ (25)
- Rom 8 – THEREFORE (7:25): no condemnation; present suffering, future glory; nothing can take us away from the love of God
Rom 9-11 Paul’s sorrow because his fellow Jews refuse to embrace the gospel
- Rom 9 – God sovereignly elected Isaac, Jacob; not by works but by God’s grace, mercy, and sovereign will (e.g. he hardened Pharaoh, 17-18); but Israel didn’t understand it but “pursued the law as the way of righteousness” (31)
- Rom 10 – but Christ is the culmination of the law (4); the same Lord is Lord of all (12); faith by hearing and hearing through the word about Christ (17); so if you believe and confess on the name of the Lord, you’re saved; but Israel refuses
- Rom 11 – Israel’s remnants; Gentiles: ingrafted branches of a wild olive shoot; all Israel will be saved; this is such a mystery; doxology (33-36): “For from him and through him and for him are all things. To him be the glory forever! Amen” (36)
/// Rom 1-11 is like mysterious (yet perfect) software that enables Rom 12-16. Without understanding, experiencing, believing and internalizing 1-11, the life described in 12-16 is impossible.
Rom 12-16 Paul concludes how the gospel affects our everyday life (ESV)
- Rom 12 – Your body: a living sacrifice (1-2); be humble; each has different gift; “be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer, share with the Lord’s people who are in need. Practice hospitality” (12-13)
- Rom 13 – Submit to governing authorities; pay taxes; “Love your neighbor as yourself” (9); wake up; put on the armor of light; do not satisfy the desires of your flesh
- Rom 14 – Accept the weak; do not be a stumbling block to your brothers
- Rom 15 – Endurance and encouragement; accept one another; Paul’s plan to visit Rome
- Rom 16 – Greetings